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How Egypt, Turkey and Ukraine Convert Agricultural Residues Into Bioenergy

Date: 02/19/2021 08:58:56 From: Clicks:

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Countries striving to meet their growing energy needs while also lowering greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are increasingly turning to renewables – such as hydro, wind and solar power – to reduce their dependence on fossil fuels. One promising option, often overlooked by policy-makers, is to convert unused agricultural residues into bioenergy for heating, cooking and electricity. Nutshells, maize cobs, sunflower heads, and livestock manure are examples of agricultural residues.

Agricultural Residues

Many countries generate huge volumes of crop and livestock residues every year. At times the unused residues are burned – a significant source of GHG emissions. But even when residues are plentiful, collecting them and putting them to use for bioenergy production can be challenging and costly, with complex logistics and coordination between farmers and processing plants.

In Egypt, for example, briquettes and pellets made from locally available crop residues could potentially supply around 1.6 million households with energy for cooking and heating – significantly reducing the use of liquefied petroleum gas.

Turkey, among the world’s top agricultural producers, wants 20 percent of its overall energy consumption to come from renewable resources by 2023. It also has a specific biomass target. According to the assessment, energy produced by the direct combustion of available groundnut husk, pistachio shell, hazelnut husk, maize cob and maize husk – and through the anaerobic digestion of cattle and poultry manure and sunflower heads – could be sufficient for the country to reach its biomass energy target.

While a full BEFS assessment was not carried out in Ukraine, a review of recent bioenergy studies on agricultural residues found that the estimated availability of crop residues is significantly greater than that needed to achieve the country’s bioenergy targets by 2020.

Tapping into the potential of bioenergy requires governments to put in place the right incentives, policies and support measures. This FAO-EBRD assessment outlines steps that governments should take to develop well-functioning biomass value chains that ensure a steady, long-term supply of agricultural residues.

Agricultural Waste Materials Available

How to Make Agricultural Waste Residues Pellets?

(1) Fragmentation: Use a fragmentation machine to break the incoming agricultural waste residues into small pieces.

(2) Crushing: Use a crusher to crush the broken agricultural waste residues into small particles that meet the requirements.

(3) Drying: The crushed particles are dried. The average water content of the raw materials purchased in this project is about 20%, and it needs to be dried to 5% before production. The dryer is used in this project. Biomass hot air stove, the fuel is biomass pellets, and the temperature of the dryer is controlled at 150-250℃.

(4) Granulation: The dried granules are conveyed to the agricultural residues pellet machine through the conveyor for granulation, and the finished product is made by extrusion molding. The extrusion process is a physical process without any adhesive and no chemical reaction.

agricultural residues pellet machine
agricultural residues pellet machine

(5) Inspection: The unformed or unqualified particles are screened out by the screening machine, and this part of the particles enters the crushing device to be reused without discharge.

(6) Packing and warehousing: the products that have passed the inspection are packed and put into the warehouse.

Advantages of Agricultural Waste Pellets

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