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Feasibility Analysis Of Making Cotton Straw Into Fuel Pellets

Date: 07/20/2020 08:27:41 From: Clicks:

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Cotton is a global cash crop and an important raw material for the textile industry worldwide. With the increase in cotton production, the waste of cotton straw has increased year by year. These cotton straws are piled up in tons. If they are not used for other purposes, they may cause nuisance and pollute our environment. An economical and effective method for developing, using or disposing of cotton fertilizers can make biomass such as cotton straw into pellet fuel.

Feasibility Analysis Of Making Cotton Straw Into Fuel Pellets
Feasibility Analysis Of Making Cotton Straw Into Fuel Pellets

I.Rich Cotton Straw Raw Materials

Approximately 80 countries worldwide produce cotton, the U.S., China, and India together provide over half the world’s cotton. Other major producers are Uzbekistan, Pakistan, Brazil, Turkey, Australia, Turkmenistan, Greece, Syria and Egypt.

Due to its large agricultural sector, Uzbekistan has an enormous potential of biomass energy generation. Main source of biomass in the country is cotton stalk. The annual out of cotton stalk is about 3 million tons, it deserves more attention for efficient use in energy generation. Almost all of this cotton stalk resource is consumed for cooking and space heating in the rural area by using the most conservative combustion process.

Cotton production is an important economic factor in the United States as the country leads worldwide in cotton exportation. All most all the cotton fiber growth and production occurs in southern and western states. More than 99 percent of the cotton grown in the US is of the Upland variety.

II.How to Make Cotton Stalk into Biomass Pellets?

Cotton Stalk Pellets can be produced in small scale by a small-scale pellet machine, and also a large capacity pellet making machine can produce large scale cotton pellets. The manufacturing processes that make cotton stalk pellets include grinding as the initial stage, drying, pelletizing, cooling, sieving, and packaging.

1. Grinding and Drying of the pellets

This is the first process of cotton stalk pellet production after the cotton harvest is completed. In this process the moisture content on the stalk should not be too low or too high. The proper moistness satisfied is 18% and the minimal level should be 12%. If the moisture content on the stalk is higher than the recommended sawdust dryer can be used to dry the stalks but if moisture content is less than the recommended 18% then there is absolutely no need to go through the drying process. It is very crucial that before the stalks are pelletized the size of the material to be suitable. To crush the stalk into shorter particles the hammer mill is efficient equipment that can be used for the grinding process. And now with the recommended level of moisture in the raw material and the right size the next process of pillarization can take place.

2. Pelletizing and Cooling

This is the second and most important process of the cotton stalk pellet production. Different sizes of machines are used depending on the size of production there is. Larger processing equipment will be used for large quantities of output. There are two different types of fuel pellet machines; the flat die wood pellet mill, which is driven by diesel engine or electric motor and the ring die wood pellet mill. Flat die pellet mill is stress-free to operate and maintain, easy to move from one point to another, is small in size and mostly favored pellet making machine for the lesser scale pelletizing. After the grinding and drying process, the pelletizing process begins with the above named machines. After the material is pelletized they are usually very hot and soft when they leave the pellet machine. Thus it is very important to cool the pellet in the pellet cooler to strengthen and make the pellets durable for the market.

3. Screening and Packaging of the pellets

Now the final stages of making the finest cotton stalk pellets, which are cooled, are passed through a vibrating screen to remove fines. The fines can go through the pelletizing process again and once screened they are ready to be packed and used.

The production of cotton stalk pellets is significant to the farmers as the waste from agricultural produce is turned into a valued product. This improves the economy and offers jobs to the unemployed locals of the community. Producing cotton stalk pellets instead of burning the waste product from the cotton harvest is advantageous because it will prevent burning the waste that causes air pollution, burning will decrease the natural action of the soil which can lead to drop yields and cause soil erosion which is not a good outcome to the farmer.

III.Comparison between Cotton Stalks and Cotton Stalk Pellet

A. Density of cotton stalks is generally about 110-130kg / m3, covering a great piece of area, and causing serious air pollution because of its low burning rate; while density of cotton stalks pellets is greater than 1100kg/ m3, extremely convenient to transport and store. At the same time, its combustion performance is greatly improved.

B. The volume of cotton stalks particles is 1/30~40 of cotton stalks and its relative density is 10 to 15 times of the raw materials. Calorific value is up to about 3400 to 6000 kcal. Cotton stalks particles are high cost-benefit solid fuels.

C. Cotton stalks have low calorific value which after being processed into particles will be greatly increased. They even can replace firewood, coal, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and other fuels.
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